Concept of Evolution
By Dr Bashir Ahmad
In the Pakistan Link
(December 30, 2005) Dr Nayyer Ali, MD, in his column
has very accurately written that '… Islam
does not have a story that has literal elements
of Genesis. Which makes it doubly disturbing to
see so much creationist literature in Mosque bookstores
around the country. It is in fact an odd example
of Christian fundamentalist thinking entering Muslim
It is sad and disturbing that Muslim ulama, unschooled
in science, have not grasped the very accurate Qur’anic
concept of the origin of life on this planet earth
billions of years ago and its gradual development
into human beings spreading over a span of billions
The Quran speaks of creation only in step by step
progressive stages and categorically rejects the
concept of spontaneous generation as is mentioned
"and the Lord God formed man of the dust of
the ground and breathed into its nostrils the breath
of life; and the man became a living soul".
The Quranic concept of creation is a progression
of developmental stages. "What is the matter
with you that you expect not wisdom and staidness
from Allah? While he has created you in different
forms and ever varying stages?" Qur’an
And also "That you shall assuredly pass from
one stage to another". Qur’an 84/20
It must be emphasized that when the Qur’an
speaks of the earlier form of creation it refers
to them as the creation of man, while whatever was
created at that time had no semblance to him.
The Quran vehemently rejects the haphazard evolution
without a preset design, the concept held by the
biologists about evolution. The Qur’an also
rejects the Darwinian theory of evolution based
on natural selection, which virtually plays the
role of a selector and a creator.
Darwin never presented the idea that natural selection
could also create. He knew that selections and creation
are two separate functions.
One may ask the proponents of Darwinism to demonstrate
how natural selection could have played any role
in the creation of genes.
The Holy Qur’an beautifully solves this riddle.
"And thy Lord creates whatever He pleases and
selects. It is not for them to select. Glorified
be Allah, and far is He above all that they associate."
One of God's attributes which is extensively used
in the Qur’an is the word Rabb, invariably
means someone who continues to evolve something
from a lower stage to a higher stage. The earliest
creation of bacteria on the planet earth was about
four billion years ago, when there was no oxygen
or ozone in the atmosphere except sulphur compounds.
The earth was hot, bombarded with radiation. The
Qur’an describes these very primitive organisms
"And the jinn we created before that (the creation
of man) from the blast of fire (naris-samum) Qur’an
15/28.Samum means blazing fire or a blast that has
These minute organisms drew their energy for their
existence directly from hot blazes of lightening
-- Samum -- cosmic radiation and sulfur compounds.
Scientific America, June 1981, has claimed that
archae bacterial could be rightly considered as
the earliest form of organisms.
These bacteria multiplied during their uninterrupted
proliferation lasting over billion years. Their
decay and fermentation turned the oceans into primordial
1. "With water did we create every living thing".
2. "He created you from clay" (humid or
moist earth). Qur’an 6/3
3." And surely, we created man from dry ringing
clay made from stagnant blackish mud." Qur’an
4. " He created man from dry ringing clay like
pieces of pottery". Qur’an 55/15
The over all picture of evolution presented in the
Qur’an entails an advancing step by step evolution
from water, from clay and also from fermented blackish
mud which subsequently turned into dry ringing clay.
The Quran most spectacularly describes the evolution
of homosapiens from the Prebiotic stage in a seqentional
manner in the following verses.
"We brought man into being from dry ringing
clay which was wrought from black mud, and jinn.
We had brought into being before from the fire of
a glowing blast. Call to mind when thy Lord said
to the angels: I am about to bring into being a
man from dry ringing clay wrought from black mud;
so when I have perfected him and have enlightened
his mind with My revelation, do ye all fall down
in prostration with him". Qur’an 15/27-28-29-30.
John Bernal in 1951, writing in his book The Physical
basis of life,
confirmed the Qur’anic concept of evolution.
The absorption of clays, mud and inorganic crystals
are powerful means to concentrate and polymerize
organic molecules ---"
The amino acids, the bricks of life are formed from
aldehyde by a mechanism known as Strecker synthesis.
It is a two-step sequence. The first step is the
reaction of aldehyde with a mixture of amino acid
and HCN to yield aminonit-rile. The second step
if the hydrolysis of the aminonit-rile resulting
in the amino acid.
A dry stage is envisioned, whereby the elementary
unstable organic compounds in the primordial soup
would develop into more advanced irreversible organic
compound. If the primordial soup stays in a wet
state, the advance organic compound would revert
back to the elementary state
Moreover the formation of protein and nucleic acids
from the elementary amino-acids requires the elimination
of a molecule of water from every couple of amino
acid molecules and nucleotides. This is called Polymerisations.
The Quran had very accurately and very beautifully
described this process:
" He created man from dry ringing clay like
pieces of pottery". Qur’an 55/15
THERE BE EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES IN HUMANS IN THE FAR
The Qur’an very clearly depicts the appearance
of new form of human life here on earth, replacing
humans, who will be distinctly different from them.
" See dost thou not perceive that Allah has
created the heavens and the earth in accordance
with the requirements of truth and wisdom? If He
pleases, He can bring to naught and replace you
with a new creation; and this is not difficult for
Allah." Qur’an 14/20-21.
"The Lord is self sufficient, full of mercy.
He can do away with you if He pleases and cause
to succeed you who so He pleases even as He raised
you from the off-spring of another people."
In the above verse the Qur’an does not speak
of replacing man with Others like him. It clearly
and definitely mentions the bringing into being
a new creation, Khalq, and speaks of the whole mankind
be changed into a different entity.
The Qur’an also speaks of a different form
here on earth which will supersede humans.
" We created them and strengthened their make;
and when we will so decide, We will change their
form to something completely different" Qur’an
"But nay! I swear by the Lord of the Easts
and of the Wests that we have the power to substitute
in their place others better than they, and We cannot
be frustrated in our plans." Quran 70/41-42
The substitute creation is not mentioned as another
nation qaum nor as another generation of humans.
One wonders whether the substitute creation shall
be endowed with additional senses or other attributes.
Only God Almighty know.
These verses totally reject the Darwinian theory
based on blind evolution and accidental events.
The continuous evolution mentioned in the Holy Qur’an
deserves the greatest admiration.