Basics of Investment
By Saghir Aslam
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

(The following information is provided solely to educate the Muslim community about investing and financial planning. It is hoped that the Ummah will benefit from this effort through greater financial empowerment, enabling the community to live in security and dignity and fulfill their religious and moral obligations towards charitable activities)

Shorter-Term Investments
If you find yourself with cash reserves that you are not ready to invest or spend immediately, a short-term investment buys time and earns interest while you decide how else you would like to use the money. Short-term securities offer relative safety and liquidity at the same time.
Three short-term investments available from full-service investment firms – are money-market mutual funds, brokered certificates of deposit and Treasury bills. We will discuss each in turn.
Money market mutual funds. Investment firms typically offer a variety of professionally managed, diversified money-market portfolios investing in high-quality, short-term debt instruments. Money-market funds can be used as place to hold funds waiting for a potential investment opportunity. Be aware that the yield will fluctuate on a daily basis, depending whether interest rates go up or down.
Mutual funds are sold by prospectus. Please consider the fund’s investment objectives, risks, charges and expense carefully before investing. The prospectus, which contains and other information, can be obtained from your financial advisor. Read it carefully before you invest. An investment in a mutual fund is neither insured nor guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) or any other government agency. Although a money-market fund seeks to preserve the value of your investment at $1 a share, it is possible to lose money by investing in the fund.
Certificates of Deposit (CDs). Brokered CDs, available from most full-service investment firms, offer an alternative to traditional bank products. Usually available for $1000 each. CDs can be sold before maturity through any brokers firm that maintain a secondary market (large blocks of federally insured CDs available for resale to investors). Maturities typically range from three month to 30 years. However, keep in mind that if you sell your brokered CD before maturity, you may receive more or less than your initial investment, depending on current interest rates and any applicable penalties for early withdrawal. Before investing take careful note of how interest is compounded and of the actual effective yield. By staggering the maturities of your CDs between three, six and twelve month, you may be able to balance liquidity with competitive yields.
Treasury bills (T-bills). Treasury bills are guaranteed by the government and are available in a variety of maturities. They are sold at a discount; at maturity, you receive the full face value. The minimum denomination is $1000, but the actual cost of a T-bill varies according to its maturity and interest rate. T-bills are fully negotiable, and T-bills purchased from an investment firm can be sold before maturity without a penalty. Keep in mind, however, that selling a T-bill before maturity may result in a profit or loss, depending on interest rates. As interest rates generally increase, the prices of fixed-income securities generally decline.
Intermediate- and Long-Term Considerations: Risk and Reward
Investing for the intermediate term (1 to 10 years) and the long term (10 to 30 years) makes it important to consider the risk/reward characteristics of any prospective investment. Before committing funds to any investment, you must consider these questions:
What is the investment goal? What do I want this money to do?
How much time do I have?
When do I plan to sell the investment I buy today?
What annual rate of return on investment (ROI) must this investment achieve to meet the investment goal?
How important is it to preserve this capital?
How much risk can I afford to take in search of the desired ROI?
Generally the greater the risk you are willing to take, the greater the reward you may receive if the investment turns out well. Of course, greater risk can lead to greater losses if the investment turns out poorly. This is true for all the major types of investments: stocks, bonds and mutual funds that invest in stocks and bonds.
(Saghir A. Aslam only explains strategies and formulas that he has been using. He is merely providing information, and NO ADVICE is given. Mr. Aslam does not endorse or recommend any broker, brokerage firm, or any investment at all, or does he suggest that anyone will earn a profit when or if they purchase stocks, bonds or any other investments. All stocks or investment vehicles mentioned are for illustrative purposes only. Mr. Aslam is not an attorney, accountant, real estate broker, stockbroker, investment advisor, or certified financial planner. Mr. Aslam does not have anything for sale.)

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Editor: Akhtar M. Faruqui
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